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Authors: James MacGregor Burns

American Experiment

BOOK: American Experiment
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The American Experiment
James MacGregor Burns

Contents
The Vineyard of Liberty

PROLOGUE
The Vineyard

PART I • Liberty and Union

CHAPTER 1
The Strategy of Liberty

THE GREAT FEAR

A RAGE FOR LIBERTY

PHILADELPHIA: THE CONTINENTAL CAUCUS

CHAPTER 2
The Third Cadre

THE ANTI-FEDERALISTS

THE COURSE IS SET

VICE AND VIRTUE

CHAPTER 3
The Experiment Begins

THE FEDERALISTS TAKE COMMAND

THE NEW YORKERS

THE FEDERALIST THRUST

THE DEADLY PATTERN

DIVISIONS ABROAD AND AT HOME

CHAPTER 4
The Trial of Liberty

PHILADELPHIANS: THE EXPERIMENTERS

QUASI-WAR ABROAD

SEMI-REPRESSION AT HOME

THE VENTURES OF THE FIRST DECADE

SHOWDOWN: THE ELECTION OF 1800

PART II • Liberty in Arcadia

CHAPTER 5
Jeffersonian Leadership

“THE EYES OF HUMANITY ARE FIXED ON US”

TO LOUISIANA AND BEYOND

CHECKMATE: THE FEDERALIST BASTION STANDS

CHAPTER 6
The American Way of War

“THE HURRICANE …NOW BLASTING THE WORLD”

THE IRRESISTIBLE WAR

WATERSIDE YANKEES: THE FEDERALISTS AT EBB TIDE

FEDERALISTS: THE TIDE RUNS OUT

CHAPTER 7
The American Way of Peace

GOOD FEELINGS AND ILL

ADAMS’ DIPLOMACY AND MONROE’S DICTUM

VIRGINIANS: THE LAST OF THE GENTLEMEN POLITICIANS

THE CHECKING AND BALANCING OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS

JUBILEE l826: THE PASSING OF THE HEROES

CHAPTER 8
The Birth of the Machines

FARMS: THE JACKS-OF-ALL-TRADES

FACTORIES: THE LOOMS OF LOWELL

FREIGHT: THE BIG DITCHES

THE INNOVATING LEADERS

PART III • Liberty and Equality

CHAPTER 9
The Wind from the West

THE REVOLT OF THE OUTS

THE DANCE OF THE FACTIONS

JACKSONIAN LEADERSHIP

CHAPTER 10
Parties: The People’s Constitution

EQUALITY: THE JACKSONIAN DEMOS

STATE POLITICS: SEEDBED OF PARTY

MAJORITIES: THE FLOWERING OF THE PARTIES

CHAPTER 11
The Majority That Never Was

BLACKS IN BONDAGE

WOMEN IN NEED

MIGRANTS IN POVERTY

LEADERS WITHOUT FOLLOWERS

PART IV • The Empire of Liberty

CHAPTER 12
Whigs: The Business of Politics

THE WHIG WAY OF GOVERNMENT

THE ECONOMICS OF WHIGGERY

EXPERIMENTS IN ESCAPE

CHAPTER 13
The Empire of Liberty

TRAILS OF TEARS AND HOPE

ANNEXATION: POLITICS AND WAR

THE GEOMETRY OF BALANCE

CHAPTER 14
The Culture of Liberty

THE ENGINE IN THE VINEYARD

RELIGION: FREE EXERCISE

SCHOOLS: THE “TEMPLES OF FREEDOM”

LEADERS OF THE PENNY PRESS

ABOLITIONISTS: BY TONGUE AND PEN

PART V • Neither Liberty Nor Union

CHAPTER 15
The Ripening Vineyard

THE CORNUCOPIA

THE CORNUCOPIA OVERFLOWS

“IT WILL RAISE A HELL OF A STORM”

THE ILLINOIS REPUBLICANS

CHAPTER 16
The Grapes of Wrath

SOUTH CAROLINIANS: THE POWER ELITE

THE GRAND DEBATES

 THE POLITICS OF SLAVERY

CHAPTER 17
The Blood-Red Wine

THE FLAG THAT BORE A SINGLE STAR

MEN IN BLUE AND GRAY

THE BATTLE CRIES OF FREEDOM

NOTES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

INDEX

The Workshop of Democracy

PART I • The Crisis of Democracy

CHAPTER 1
The War of Liberation

MANNING THE FRONT

FORGING THE SWORD

THE SOCIETY OF THE BATTLEFIELD

“LET US DIE TO MAKE MEN FREE”

CHAPTER 2
The Reconstruction of Slavery

BOUND FOR FREEDOM

A REVOLUTIONARY EXPERIMENT

“I’SE FREE. AIN’T WUF NUFFIN”

PART II • The Business of Democracy

CHAPTER 3
The Forces of Production

INNOVATORS: THE INGENIOUS YANKEES

INVESTORS: EASTERN DOLLARS AND WESTERN RISKS

ENTREPRENEURS: THE CALIFORNIANS

INDUSTRIALISTS: CARNEGIE, ROCKEFELLER, AND THE TWO CAPITALISMS

PHILADELPHIA 1876: THE PROUD EXHIBITORS

CHAPTER 4
The Structure of Classes

UPPER CLASSES: THE NEW RICH AND THE OLD

THE MIDDLE CLASSES: A WOMAN’S WORK

THE FARMER’S LOT

WORKING CLASSES: THE CONDITIONS OF EXISTENCE

SOCIAL CLASS AND SOCIAL OUTCAST

CHAPTER 5
The Power of Ideas

DINNER AT DELMONICO’S

THE BITCH-GODDESS SUCCESS

“TOILING MILLIONS NOW ARE WAKING”

THE ALLIANCE: A DEMOCRACY OF LEADERS

CHAPTER 6
The Brokers of Politics

THE OHIOANS: LEADERS AS BROKERS

POLITICS: THE DANCE OF THE ROPEWALKERS

THE POVERTY OF POLICY

SHOWDOWN 1896

TRIUMPHANT REPUBLICANISM

PART III • Progressive Democracy?

CHAPTER 7
The Urban Progressives

THE SHAPE OF THE CITY

THE LIFE OF THE CITY

THE LEADERS OF THE CITY

THE REFORMATION OF THE CITIES

WOMEN: THE PROGRESSIVE CADRE

CHAPTER 8
The Modernizing Mind

T
HE PULSE OF THE MACHINE

THE CRITICS: IDEAS VS. INTERESTS?

ART: “ALL THAT IS HOLY IS PROFANED”

W
RITING: “VENERABLE IDEAS ARE SWEPT AWAY”

“ALL THAT IS SOLID MELTS INTO AIR”

CHAPTER 9
The Reformation of Economic Power

T
HE PERSONAL USES OF POWER

F
OREIGN POLICY WITH THE TR BRAND

R
EFORM: LEADERSHIP AND POWER

CHAPTER 10
The Cauldron of Leadership

TAFT, TR, AND THE TWO REPUBLICAN PARTIES

WILSON AND THE THREE DEMOCRATIC PARTIES

ARMAGEDDON

PART IV • Democracy on Trial

CHAPTER 11
The New Freedom

THE ENGINE OF DEMOCRACY

THE ANATOMY OF PROTEST

MARKETS, MORALITY, AND THE “STAR OF EMPIRE”

CHAPTER 12
Over There

WILSON AND THE ROAD TO WAR

MOBILIZING THE WORKSHOP

“NOUS VOILÀ, LAFAYETTE!”

OVER HERE: LIBERTY AND DEMOCRACY

CHAPTER 13
The Fight for the League

THE MIRRORED HALLS OF VERSAILLES

THE BATTLE FOR THE TREATY

1920: THE GREAT AND SOLEMN REJECTION

PART V • The Culture of Democracy

CHAPTER 14
The Age of Mellon

“THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA …”

BANKERS AND BATTLESHIPS

THE VOICES OF PROTEST

CHAPTER 15
The Commercialized Culture

THE WORKSHOP OF EDUCATION

THE PRESS AS ENTERTAINMENT

ENTERTAINMENT AS SPECTATORSHIP

THE WORKSHOP AND THE DEMOS

CHAPTER 16
The Vacant Workshop

LIFE IN THE DEPRESSION

THE CRISIS OF IDEAS

“ONCE I BUILT A RAILROAD, MADE IT RUN”

NOTES

INDEX

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Crosswinds of Freedom

PART I • What Kind of Freedom?

CHAPTER 1
The Crisis of Leadership

THE DIVIDED LEGACY

THE “HUNDRED DAYS” OF ACTION

“DISCIPLINE AND DIRECTION UNDER LEADERSHIP”?

CHAPTER 2
The Arc of Conflict

CLASS WAR IN AMERICA

“LENIN OR CHRIST” OR A PATH BETWEEN?

THE POLITICS OF TUMULT

APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE

CHAPTER 3
The Crisis of Majority Rule

COURT-PACKING: THE SWITCH IN TIME

CONGRESS-PURGING: THE BROKEN SPELL

DEADLOCK AT THE CENTER

THE FISSION OF IDEAS

THE PEOPLE’S ART

PART II • Strategies of Freedom

CHAPTER 4
Freedom Under Siege

THE ZIGZAG ROAD TO WAR

THE WAR OF TWO WORLDS

THE PRODUCTION OF WAR

THE RAINBOW COALITION EMBATTLED

CHAPTER 5
Cold War: The Fearful Giants

THE DEATH AND LIFE OF FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

THE LONG TELEGRAM

THE SPIRAL OF FEAR

THE PRICE OF SUSPICION

CHAPTER 6
The Imperium of Freedom

THE TECHNOLOGY OF FREEDOM

THE LANGUAGE OF FREEDOM

DILEMMAS OF FREEDOM

CHAPTER 7
The Free and the Unfree

THE BOSTON IRISH

THE SOUTHERN POOR

THE INVISIBLE LATINS

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