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Authors: Uzodinma Iweala

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AIDS IS REAL

25       American Invention to Discourage Sex: Ogoh Alubo, “Breaking the Wall of Silence: AIDS Policy and Politics in Nigeria,”
International Journal of Health Services
32 (2002), no. 3: 551–66.

26       “wipe out entire generations”: “Nigeria: Statement by His Excellency President Olusegun Obasanjo,” 57th United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Secretariat, New York, Sept. 15, 2002, www.un.org/webcast/ga/57/statements/020915nigeriaE.htm.

27       4 percent of Nigeria’s population:
National HIV/AIDS & Reproductive Health Survey
, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, 2006.

27       34 million positive people:
AIDS Epidemic Update 09
(Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Nov. 2009), http://data.unaids.org/pub/report/2009/jcl700_epi_update_2009_en.pdf;
UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2011
(Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2011), www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2011/JC2216_WorldAIDSday_report_2011_en.pdf;
National Policy on HIV/AIDS
, Federal Government of Nigeria, 2009, http://nigeria.unfpa.org/pdf/ntpol.pdf

34       “worst years of my life”: Fred Adegbulugbe, “I Waited Four Years for Death,” interview of Rolake Odetoyinbo,
Punch
(Nigeria), Feb. 8, 2009, http://archive.punchontheweb.com/Articl.aspx?theartic=Art20090208193851.

35       “I didn’t know much about HIV”: Jemi Ekunkunbor, “HIV Made Me Feel Ugly and Battered but No More—Rolake Odetoyinbo Nwagwu,” interview,
Vanguard
(Nigeria), Aug. 1, 2004, www.impactaids.org.uk/newsletter/Newletter_Archive/VAN–1.htm.

35       “wasn’t in a hurry to kill me”: Adegbulugbe, “I Waited.”

37       “I don’t want to go out and look like HIV”: Ekunkunbor, “HIV Made Me Feel Ugly.”

STIGMA

57       “only part of the story”: Philip Alcabes, “The Ordinariness of AIDS,”
American Scholar
, Summer 2006, 18–32, http://theamericanscholar.org/the-ordinariness-of-aids.

65       “undesired differentness”: Erving Goffman,
Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), p. 4.

68       “Dearly beloved”: Michel Foucault,
The History of Madness
, trans. Jean Khalfa (London: Routledge, 2006), p. 63.

69       “dominant religious discourse”: Daniel Jordan Smith, “Youth, Sin and Sex in Nigeria: Christianity and HIV/AIDS-Related Beliefs and Behaviour among Rural-Urban Migrants,”
Culture, Health & Sexuality
6 (2004), no. 5: 425–37 (p. 430).

69       “sinful immoral lives”: Ibid., 429.

71       “AIDS is God’s way of checking”: Ibid., 430.

72       “Black shapes crouched”: Joseph Conrad,
Heart of Darkness
and
The Secret Sharer
(New York: Signet Classics, 1997), 83.

73       “continent of AIDS orphans”: Christiane Amanpour, CNN Presents,
Where Have All the Parents Gone?
CNN, September 23, 2006, excerpt, YouTube, www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdDIZWOWkKA.

75       “Traditional Ways Spread AIDS”: Elisabeth Rosenthal, “Traditional Ways Spread AIDS in Africa, Experts Say,”
New York Times
, Nov. 21, 2006, www.nytimes.com/2006/ll/21/world/africa/21cameroon.html?pagewanted=all.

76       move between populations: Michael Specter, “The Doomsday Strain,”
New Yorker
, Dec. 20, 2010, pp. 50—63, www.gvfi.org/docs/Specter%2012–20–10.pdf.

76       “endemicity of disease”: Paul Farmer,
AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 222.

78       “the stage of social impact”: Elizabeth Fee and Manon Parry, “Jonathan Mann, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights
,” Journal of Public Health Policy
29 (2008): 54–71.

SEX

94       35.6 percent of sex workers:
National HIV/AIDS & Reproductive Health Survey
, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, 2006.

94       “not only of sexual excess”: Susan Sontag,
Illness as Metaphor
and
AIDS and Its Metaphors
(New York: Picador, 1989), 114.

95       
“this
disease’s version of ‘the general population’”: Ibid., 115.

95       “gay plague”: David Black,
The Plague Years: A Chronicle of AIDS, the Epidemic of Our Times
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986).

96       African sexuality as Other: Marc Epprecht,
Heterosexual Africa? The History of an Idea from the Age of Exploration to the Age of AIDS
(Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008).

97       “promiscuous by Western standards”: Daniel B. Hrdy, “Cultural Practices Contributing to the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Africa,”
Reviews of Infectious Diseases 9
, no. 6 (Nov.–Dec. 1987): 1109–19.

98       “not found in the Eurasian system”: John C. Caldwell, Pat Caldwell, and Pat Quiggin, “The Social Context of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa,”
Population and Development Review
15 (1989), no. 2: 185–234.

99       “greatest struggle”: Anonymous,
Marita; or, The Folly of Love
, ed. Stephanie Newell (Leiden: Koninklike Brill, 2002).

110       sequentially monogamous relationships: Martina Morris and Mirjam Kretzschmar, “Concurrent Partnerships and the Spread of HIV,”
AIDS
11 (1997): 641–48.

110      concurrent partnerships: Adaora A. Adimora and Victor J. Schoenbach, “Contextual Factors and the Black-White Disparity in Heterosexual HIV Transmission,”
Epidemiology
13 (2002), no. 6: 707–12.

110      “the speed with which the epidemic spreads”: Morris and Kretzschmar, “Concurrent Partnerships.”

112      multiple or concurrent partnerships:
National HIV/AIDS & Reproductive Health Survey
.

113      rises to 77 percent: A. O. Arowojulu, A. O. Ilesanmi, O. A. Roberts, and M. A. Okunola, “Sexuality, Contraceptive Choice and AIDS Awareness among Nigerian Undergraduates,”
African Journal of Reproductive Health
6 (2002), no. 2: 60–70.

115      “‘shared pleasure’ has gained prominence”: Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Richmond Tiemoko, and Paulina Makinwa-Adebusoye, eds.,
Human Sexuality in Africa: Beyond Reproduction
(Auckland Park, South Africa: Fanele/Jacana Media, 2007).

118      900 million condoms: “909.5m Condom Packets Sold in Nigeria,”
Nigeria Daily News
, Jan. 31, 2008, http://ndn.nigeriadailynews.com/templates/?a=5879.

124      moral partnering: Daniel Jordan Smith, “Youth, Sin and Sex in Nigeria: Christianity and HIV/AIDS-Related Beliefs and Behaviour among Rural-Urban Migrants,”
Culture, Health & Sexuality
6 (2004), no. 5: 425–37.

126      positive moral connotations: Ibid., 431.

126      more than one moral partner: Ibid., 432.

127      Condom usage is not high: Ibid., 431.

DEATH

139      1.3 million people:
AIDS Epidemic Update 09
(Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Nov. 2009), http://data.unaids.org/pub/report/2009/jcl700_epi_update_2009_en.pdf;
UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2011
(Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2011), www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2011/JC2216_WorldAIDSday_report_2011_en.pdf;
National Policy on HIV/AIDS
, Federal Government of Nigeria, 2009, http://nigeria.unfpa.org/pdf/ntpol.pdf

139      two hundred thousand AIDS-related deaths:
AIDS Epidemic Update 09; National Policy on HIV/AIDS
.

140      among the sexually active: Markus Haacker, ed.,
The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS
(Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2004), 2.

140      more vulnerable to HIV: Ibid., 23.

140      astoundingly brief forty-five years:
National HIV/AIDS & Reproductive Health Survey
, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, 2006.

141      declining workforce: Haacker,
Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS
, 37.

141      Household incomes drop dramatically: Ibid., 47.

145      ceremony and ritual: Georges Bataille,
Erotism: Death and Sensuality
(San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1986), 44.

150      “Claiming positive identity”: Jean Comaroff “Beyond the Politics of Bare Life: AIDS, (Bio) Politics, and the Neoliberal Order,”
Public Culture
19 (2007), no. 1: 197–221.

SPEAKING OF AIDS

155      “the Nigerian invented noise”: Peter Enahoro,
How to Be a Nigerian
(Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books and Safari Books, 1998).

157      “safe-sex educator’s nightmare”: Mark Schoofs, “A Tale of Two Brothers,” part 2,
Village Voice
, Nov. 9, 1999, www.villagevoice.com/1999-ll-09/news/part-2-a-tale-of-two-brothers/3.

HEALING

191      dropped by 20 percent:
UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic
(Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2010).

191      decreased by about 20 percent: Ibid.

191      the numbers are not rising: Ibid.

193      ten thousand dollars: Kelly A. Gebo, John A. Fleishman, Richard Conviser, James Hellinger, Fred J. Hellinger, Joshua S.Josephs, Philip Keiser, Paul Gagist, and Richard D. Moore, “Contemporary Costs of HIV Healthcare in the HAART Era,”
AIDS
24 (2010), no. 17: 2705–15.

197      “creation of a Global AIDS Fund”: Abuja Declaration on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Other Related Infectious Diseases, Apr. 27, 2001, http://wwwupdate.un.org/ga/aids/pdf/abuja_declaration.pdf

207      “a shared sense of humanity”: Lawrence Blum, “Compassion,” in
Explaining Emotions
, ed. Amélie Oksenberg Rorty (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980) 507-18

ALSO BY UZODINMA IWEALA

Beasts of No Nation

CREDITS

COVER ILLUSTRATION BY THENJI NKOSI

COVER DESIGN BY ROBIN BILARDELLO

COPYRIGHT

OUR KIND OF PEOPLE
. Copyright © 2012 by Uzodinma Iweala. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. By payment of the required fees, you have been granted the nonexclusive, nontransferable right to access and read the text of this e-book on-screen. No part of this text may be reproduced, transmitted, downloaded, decompiled, reverse engineered, or stored in or introduced into any information storage and retrieval system, in any form or by any means, whether electronic or mechanical, now known or hereinafter invented, without the express written permission of HarperCollins e-books.

Where necessary, names and locations have been changed to protect the privacy of people interviewed.

FIRST EDITION

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Iweala, Uzodinma.

Our kind of people : a continent’s challenge, a country’s hope / by Uzodinma Iweala.

p. cm.

ISBN 978-0-06-128490-8 (hardback)
EPub Edition © JULY 2012 ISBN 9780062097675

1. AIDS (Disease)—Social aspects—Nigeria. 2. HIV infections—Social aspects—Nigeria. I. Title.

RA643.86.N6I94 2012

362.196’9792009669—dc23

2011047861

12  13  14  15  16  
OV/RRD
  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1

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*
About one thousand dollars.

*
Refers to a program for the disabled championed by Nigeria’s then first lady Turai Yar’Adua.

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