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Authors: Morris Rossabi

A History of China

BOOK: A History of China
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Contents

SERIES EDITOR’S PREFACE

SERIES EDITOR’S ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

LIST OF MAPS

A NOTE ON ROMANIZATION

PART I: China among “Barbarians”

[1] EARLY HISTORY, TO 1027 BCE

LAND AND SETTLEMENT

EARLY MANKIND

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN THE NEOLITHIC ERA

XIA: THE FIRST DYNASTY?

THE SHANG AND THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION

ORACLE BONES

RITUAL OBJECTS AS HISTORICAL SOURCES

SHANG SOCIETY

NOTES

FURTHER READING

[2] CLASSICAL CHINA, 1027–256 BCE

“FEUDALISM”?

CHANGES IN SOCIAL STRUCTURE

POLITICAL INSTABILITY IN THE EASTERN ZHOU

TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE ECONOMY

HUNDRED SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT

DAOISM

POPULAR RELIGIONS

CONFUCIANISM

MOHISM

LEGALISM

BOOK OF ODES AND BOOK OF DOCUMENTS

SECULARIZATION OF ARTS

NOTES

FURTHER READING

[3] THE FIRST CHINESE EMPIRES, 221 BCE–220 CE

DEVELOPMENT OF THE QIN STATE

QIN ACHIEVEMENTS

FAILURES OF THE QIN

HAN AND NEW INSTITUTIONS

HAN FOREIGN RELATIONS

EMPEROR WU’S DOMESTIC POLICIES AND THEIR RAMIFICATIONS

WANG MANG: REFORMER OR USURPER?

RESTORATION OF A WEAKER HAN DYNASTY

SPIRITUAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE HAN

HAN LITERATURE AND ART

FURTHER READING

[4] CHAOS AND RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL RESPONSES, 220–581

THREE KINGDOMS

RISE OF SOUTH CHINA

FOREIGNERS AND NORTH CHINA

NORTHERN WEI

SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENTS, POST-HAN

BUDDHISM ENTERS CHINA

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE ARTS IN A PERIOD OF DIVISION

NOTES

FURTHER READING

PART II: China among Equals

[5] RESTORATION OF EMPIRE UNDER SUI AND TANG, 581–907

SUI: FIRST STEP IN RESTORATION

DISASTROUS FOREIGN CAMPAIGNS

ORIGINS OF THE TANG

TAIZONG: THE GREATEST TANG EMPEROR

TANG EXPANSIONISM

IRREGULAR SUCCESSIONS AND THE EMPRESS WU

TANG COSMOPOLITANISM

ARRIVAL OF FOREIGN RELIGIONS

GLORIOUS TANG ARTS

DECLINE OF THE TANG

TANG FACES REBELLIONS

UYGHUR EMPIRE AND TANG

TANG’S CONTINUING DECLINE

SUPPRESSION OF BUDDHISM

FINAL COLLAPSE

EFFLORESCENCE OF TANG CULTURE

NOTES

FURTHER READING

[6] POST-TANG SOCIETY AND THE GLORIOUS SONG, 907–1279

FIVE DYNASTIES AND TEN KINGDOMS

SONG: A LESSER EMPIRE

A NEW SONG ELITE

NEO-CONFUCIANISM: A NEW PHILOSOPHY

ATTEMPTS AT REFORM

WOMEN AND THE SONG

THE KHITANS AND THE LIAO DYNASTY

EXPANSION OF KHITAN TERRITORY

PRESERVATION OF KHITAN IDENTITY

FALL OF THE LIAO

XIA AND JIN: TWO FOREIGN DYNASTIES

SONG ARTS

SOUTHERN SONG ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL SOPHISTICATION AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY

NOTES

FURTHER READING

PART III: China and the Mongol World

[7] MONGOL RULE IN CHINA, 1234–1368

RISE OF CHINGGIS KHAN

LEGACY OF CHINGGIS KHAN

EXPANSION AND EARLY RULE OF EMPIRE

SORGHAGHTANI BEKI, MÖNGKE, AND KHUBILAI

UNIFICATION OF CHINA

KHUBILAI’S POLICIES

MULTIETHNIC AND MULTIRELIGIOUS CHINA

KHUBILAI AND CHINESE CULTURE

DECLINE OF THE YUAN

LEGACY OF THE MONGOLS

NOTES

FURTHER READING

[8] MING: ISOLATIONISM AND INVOLVEMENT IN THE WORLD, 1368–1644

A MORE POWERFUL STATE

OPENING TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD

A COSTLY FAILURE

CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION

ARTS IN THE MING

NEO-CONFUCIANISM: SCHOOL OF THE MIND

A FEW UNORTHODOX THINKERS

MING LITERATURE

BUDDHISM: NEW DEVELOPMENTS

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND MATERIAL CULTURE

VIOLENCE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

FALL OF THE MING DYNASTY

FURTHER READING

PART IV: China in Global History

[9] EARLY QING: A MANCHU DYNASTY, 1644–1860

PRESERVING MANCHU IDENTITY

KANGXI AND THE HEIGHT OF THE QING

WESTERN ARRIVAL

JESUITS IN CHINA

EXPANSION OF CHINA

QING CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS

QING FACES ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

STIRRINGS OF DISCONTENT

THE WESTERN CHALLENGE

OPIUM WARS

EXPLANATIONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE QING

FURTHER READING

[10] LATE QING, 1860–1911

NIAN AND OTHER MINOR REBELLIONS

TAIPING REBELLION

OTHER REBELLIONS

FOREIGN THREATS

DIFFERING COURT RESPONSES TO CHALLENGES

ANTIFOREIGN ACTS AND FOREIGN REACTIONS

LOSSES IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

JAPAN EMERGES

SINO–JAPANESE CONFLICT

SCRAMBLE FOR CONCESSIONS AND US RESPONSE

CHINA HUMILIATED AND THE REFORMERS

BOXER MOVEMENT

COURT REFORMS

FALL OF THE QING

NOTES

FURTHER READING

[11] THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD, 1911–1949

THE 1911 REVOLUTION AND ITS AFTERMATH

WARLORDS IN POWER

THE MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT AND INTELLECTUALS IN THE POST-FIRST WORLD WAR PERIOD

COMMUNIST PARTY

RISE OF CHIANG KAI-SHEK

GUOMINDANG DOMINANCE

COMMUNIST PARTY REVIVAL

LONG MARCH AND AFTERMATH

THE SINO–JAPANESE WAR

THE PACIFIC WAR, THE COMMUNISTS, AND THE GUOMINDANG

CIVIL WAR IN CHINA

FURTHER READING

[12] THE COMMUNIST ERA IN CHINA, 1949 ONWARDS

EARLY PACIFICATION OF BORDER AREAS

EARLY FOREIGN RELATIONS

RECOVERY FROM WARS

CRACKS IN THE COMMUNIST WORLD

GREAT LEAP FORWARD

RETURN TO PRAGMATISM

AN ISOLATED CHINA

GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

CHINA REOPENS ITS DOORS

DRAMATIC CHANGES AND MODERNIZATION

TIANANMEN DISTURBANCE OF 1989 AND ITS AFTERMATH

THE PRESENT STATUS OF CHINA

FURTHER READING

INDEX

T
HE
B
LACKWELL
H
ISTORY
OF THE
W
ORLD

General Editor
:
R. I. Moore

*The Origins of Human Society
Peter Bogucki
Empire and Civilization: The Domestication of Eurasia
Peter Bang
The Indo-Muslim World
Francis Robinson
*A History of India, Second Edition
Burton Stein
A History of South-East Asia
Anthony Reid
*A History of China
Morris Rossabi
*A History of Japan
Conrad Totman
*A History of Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific
Donald Denoon, Philippa Mein-Smith & Marivic Wyndham
A History of the Eastern Mediterranean
Nicholas Doumanis
The Western Mediterranean and the World
Teofilo F Ruiz
A History of Western Europe
Robin Briggs
A History of Central and Northern Europe
Robert Frost
*A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia: Volume I
David Christian
A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia: Volume II
David Christian
*A History of Latin America
Available in third edition as ‘A History of Latin America to 1825’
Peter Bakewell
Foundations of the Modern World
R. I. Moore
The Early Modern World
Sanjay Subrahmanyam
*The Birth of the Modern World
C. A. Bayly
The Transformation of the Modern World
C. A. Bayly

* Denotes title published

This edition first published 2014
© 2014 Morris Rossabi

Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing program has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.

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The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

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The right of Morris Rossabi to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Rossabi, Morris.
A history of China / Morris Rossabi.
pages cm. – (The Blackwell history of the world)
Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-55786-078-1 (hardback : alk. paper) – ISBN 978-1-57718-113-2 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. China–History. I. Title.
DS735.R68 2014
951–dc23

2013006410

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: Wang Ruihui, Grandparents and Grandchildren before a portrait of Mao, Gouache on paper, 57 × 43.2 cm, 20th century. Princeton University Art Museum, NJ. Photo: Bruce M. White. © 2013. Princeton University Art Museum/Art Resource NY/Scala, Florence
Cover design by Nicki Averill

BOOK: A History of China
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