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Authors: Donald Rayfield

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Stalin and His Hangmen

BOOK: Stalin and His Hangmen
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PENGUIN BOOKS

STALIN AND HIS HANGMEN

Donald Rayfield is Professor of Russian and Georgian at Queen Mary College (University of London). He is the author of a number of books, including
The Literature of Georgia: A History
and
Anton Chekhov: A Life
, and has written articles on a variety of topics, among them Russian and Georgian poetry, Stalin and Beria. He is currently leading a team compiling a Georgian – English dictionary.

Stalin and His Hangmen

An authoritative portrait of a tyrant and those who served him

DONALD RAYFIELD

PENGUIN BOOKS

PENGUIN BOOKS

Published by the Penguin Group
Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England
Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA
Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia
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Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England

www.penguin.com

Published by Viking 2004
Published in Penguin Books 2005
1

Copyright © Donald Rayfield, 2004
All rights reserved

The moral right of the author has been asserted

Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject
to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent,
re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s
prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in
which it is published and without a similar condition including this
condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser

Allen Knechtschaffenen
An alle Himmel schreib ich’s an,
die diesen Ball umspannen:
Nicht der Tyrann ist ein schimpflicher Mann,
aber der Knecht des Tyrannen
.

To All The Enslaved
I write it all over the heavens
That encompass our earthly sphere:
It’s not the tyrant we should abuse,
But the serf who works for the tyrant.

Christian Morgenstern

Contents

List of Illustrations
Chronology
Preface

ONE
* The Long Road to Power

Childhood and Family

Being Georgian

Stalin as a Thinker

Political Initiation

Prison and Exile

The Lone Sadist

TWO
* Stalin, Dzierżyński and the Cheka

Prelude to Power

Feliks Dzierżyński: the First Forty Years

The Extraordinary Commission

Poles, Latvians and Jews

The
Chekisty
as Intellectual and Organizer

Stalin and Dzierżyński in Tandem

From Cheka to State Political Directorate

THREE
*The Exquisite Inquisitor

A False Dawn

Viacheslav Menzhinsky’s Belated Rise

Repressing Peasants and Intellectuals

Control of the Church

Stalin’s Struggle for Sole Control

A New Role for OGPU

FOUR
* Stalin Solo

Clearing the Terrain

The First Show Trials

Bringing the Writers to Heel

Operations Abroad

Enslaving the Peasantry

The Peasantry: the Final Solution

FIVE
* Iagoda’s Rise

Towards Sole Dictatorship

Bringing Up a Guard Dog

The Trophy Writer

Fellow-Travellers Abroad and Dissent at Home

From Unity to Uniformity

SIX
* Murdering the Old Guard

The Killing of Sergei Kirov

Removing Zinoviev and Kamenev

Hitler’s Lessons

Women and Children

Pigs in the Parlour, Peacocks on Parade

Iagoda’s Fall

Monolithic Power

SEVEN
* The Ezhov Bloodbath

The Birth of the Great Terror

How the Hedgehog Got Its Prickles

Purging of the Guard

Targets for Extermination

The Last Show Trials

Disarming the Army

Martyrdom for Poets

Disposing of Ezhov

EIGHT
* The Rise of Lavrenti Beria

Why Beria?

Beria in the Caucasus

Beria as Satrap

Mopping Up after Ezhov

The Last of the Intellectuals

Ethnic Cleansing

The Katyn Massacres

Trotsky’s End

NINE
* Hangmen at War

‘Brothers, sisters!’

Beria Shares Power

Evacuation, Deportation and Genocide

Prisoners of War

Liberating Europe

The Scent of Freedom

TEN
* The Gratification of Cruelty

Senescence

Exploding the Bomb

Crushing the Last of the Literati

Jews and Cosmopolitans

Vengeance on Leningrad

Stalin’s End

Beria’s Hundred Days

The Hangmen’s End

Notes

Select Bibliography
Index

List of Illustrations

SECTION ONE

1
. ‘Koba’ Stalin, police photograph, Baku, 1910
2
. Suren Spandaryan and Koba,
c.
1911
3
. Stalin with fellow exiles, Monastyrskoe (Siberia), July 1915
4
. Dzierżyński, Peterss and senior
chekisty
, 1918
5
. Dzierżyński’s funeral, 1926
6
. Menzhinsky with his first wife Iulia, his two daughters and his son Rudolf, Iaroslavl, 1904
7
. Menzhinsky in the Cheka,
c.
1919
8
. American Relief Agency clinic, Volga famine, 1921
9
. Stalin, Rykov, Zinoviev and Bukharin at dacha, 1924
10
. Sergei Kirov and Sergo Orjonikidze, north Caucasus, 1920
11
. Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev, mid-1920s
12
. Delivering prisoners to the Lubianka, 1928
13
. Boris Savinkov, 1922
14
. Menzhinsky, 1925
15
. Menzhinsky’s funeral, 1934
16
. Stalin relaxing at dacha,
c.
1930
17
. Mayakovsky shortly after his suicide, 1930
18
. Pavel Dybenko and Aleksandra Kollontai with Dybenko’s sister and parents, 1918

SECTION TWO

19
. Genrikh Iagoda and Maxim Gorky, 1934
20
. Famine, Kharkov province, 1932
21
. Stalin and Voroshilov fishing, Abkhazia, 1933
22
. Stalin and his second wife Nadezhda Allilueva,
c.
1928
23
. Stalin, his daughter Svetlana and second son Vasili, 1936
24
. Stalin’s NKVD guards, Sukhum, 1933
25
. Molotov and his daughter Svetlana,
c.
1930
26
.
Leonid Nikolaev, killer of Sergei Kirov,
c.
1933
27
. OGPU boss Filipp Medved, White Sea canal, 1931
28
. Kirov in his coffin, December 1934
29
. Prisoners at work, White Sea canal, 1933
30
. Svirlag corrective labour camp, Leningrad province, 1936
31
. Judges at Menshevik trial, 1931
32
. Chief prosecutor in 1930s show trials Andrei Vyshinsky
33
. Faina Niurina, acting chief prosecutor of the Russian Federation in the 1930s
34
. Rykov and Bukharin on their way to trial, 1938
35
. Nikolai Ezhov with his brother Ivan
36
. Ezhov conferring with Stalin, 1937
37
. Ezhov and Orjonikidze at dacha, 1936
38
. Red Army leaders in the late 1920s
39
. Lazar Kaganovich, early 1930s
40
. Orjonikidze very shortly after his suicide or murder, February 1937

SECTION THREE

41
. Lavrenti Beria, mid-1920s
42
. Beria’s guards, chauffeurs and pimps Nadaraia and Sarkisov
43
. Caucasian party caucus 1935: Pilipe Makharadze, Mir-Jafar Bagirov, Beria
44
. The Beria and Lakoba families sailing, Black Sea, 1933
45
. Party conference 1935: Lakoba, Beria and, head of Armenian party Agasi Khanjian
46
. Lakoba’s funeral, January 1937
47
. Chief executioner at the Lubianka Vasili Blokhin, 1940s
48
. Meeting 1936: Khrushchiov, Zhdanov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov, Stalin, Georgi Malenkov and others
BOOK: Stalin and His Hangmen
10Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
ads

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