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Authors: Joyce Tyldesley

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Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh

BOOK: Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh
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PENGUIN BOOKS
HATCHEPSUT

Joyce Ann Tyldesley was born in Bolton, Lancashire. She gained a first-class honours degree in archaeology from Liverpool University in 1981 and a doctorate from Oxford University in 1986. She is now Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies at Liverpool University, and a freelance writer and lecturer on Egyptian archaeology. Her books, which are published by Penguin, include
Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Eygpt, Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh, Nefertiti and Ramesses: Egypt's Greatest Pharaoh
.

By the same author

DAUGHTERS OF ISIS

HATCHEPSUT

THE FEMALE PHARAOH

JOYCE TYLDESLEY

PENGUIN BOOKS

PENGUIN BOOKS

Published by the Penguin Group

Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England

Penguin Putnam Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA

Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia

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Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd, Cnr Rosedale and Airborne Roads, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank 2196, South Africa

Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England

www.penguin.com

First published by Viking 1996

Published in Penguin Books 1998

16

Copyright © J. A. Tyldesley, 1996

All rights reserved

The moral right of the author has been asserted

Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser

ISBN: 978-0-14-192934-7

For William Jack Snape

Contents

List of Plates
List of Figures
List of Maps and Chronologies
Acknowledgements
Introduction
1 Backdrop: Egypt in the Early Eighteenth Dynasty
2 A Strong Family: The Tuthmosides
3 Queen of Egypt
4 King of Egypt
5 War and Peace
6 Propaganda in Stone
7 Senenmut: Greatest of the Great
8 The End and the Aftermath
Notes
Further Reading
Index

Plates

1 The Temple of Amen at Karnak. (Werner Foreman Archive)
2 The Valley of the Kings.
3 Hatchepsut as king offering before the barque of Amen. (Block from the Chapelle Rouge, Open-Air Museum, Karnak)
4 The God Amen. (Cairo Museum garden)
5 Seated statue of Hatchepsut from
Djeser-Djeseru
showing the king with a female body and male accessories. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund and Edward Harkness Gift, 1929 [29.3.2])
6 The near-identical figures for King Hatchepsut and King Tuthmosis III, Hatchepsut in front. (Block from the Chapelle Rouge, Open-Air Museum, Karnak)
7 Scene showing the gods crowning King Hatchepsut, which had been attacked in antiquity.
8 Head of Hatchepsut. (Cairo Museum)
9 Granite statue of Hatchepsut. (Open-Air Museum, Karnak)
10 Red granite sphinx of Hatchepsut. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund, 1931 [31.3.166])
11 The standing obelisk of Hatchepsut at the heart of the Temple of Amen, Karnak. (Werner Foreman Archive)
12 a and b
Djeser-Djeseru
.
13 Senenmut and the Princess Neferure. (Cairo Museum and British Museum)
14 Senenmut and Neferure. (Cairo Museum)
15 Osiride head of Hatchepsut. (Cairo Museum)
16 The carefully erased image of Hatchepsut. (Temple of Amen, Karnak)
17 Tuthmosis III. (Luxor Museum)

Figures

Chapter 1

1.1 The cartouche of King Sekenenre Tao II
1.2 The cartouche of King Kamose
1.3 The cartouche of King Ahmose
1.4 Old and New Kingdom soldiers (after Wilkinson, J. G., 1853,
The Ancient Egyptians: their life and customs
, London, Figs 297, 300)
1.5 The god Amen (after Sharpe, S., 1859,
The History of Egypt
, London, Fig. 94)
1.6 The goddess Mut (after Seton-Williams, V. and Stocks, P., 1983,
Blue Guide, Egypt
, London and New York, p. 48)

Chapter 2

2.1 King Ahmose and his grandmother, Queen Tetisheri (after Ayrton, E. R., Currelly, C. T. and Weigall, A. E. P., 1903,
Abydos III
, London, Plate LII)
2.2 The god Osiris (after Sharpe, S., 1859,
The History of Egypt
, London, Fig. 106)
2.3 The god Horus (after Sharpe, S., 1859,
The History of Egypt
, London, Fig. 108)
2.4 The cartouche of King Amenhotep I
2.5 The cartouche of King Tuthmosis I

Chapter 3

3.1 The infant Hatchepsut being suckled by the goddess Hathor (after Naville, E., 1896,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari
, 2, London, Plate LIII)
3.2 A hippopotamus hunter (after Wilkinson, J. G., 1853,
The Ancient Egyptians: their life and customs
, London, Fig. 253)
3.3 The cartouche of King Tuthmosis II
3.4 Tuthmosis II (after Naville, E., 1906,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 5
, London, Plate CXXXV)
3.5 Plan of Hatchepsut's first tomb (after Carter, H., 1917, A Tomb prepared for Queen Hatshepsuit and other recent discoveries at Thebes,
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
4, Plate 20)

Chapter 4

4.1 The cartouche of King Maatkare Hatchepsut
4.2 The pregnant Queen Ahmose is led to the birthing bower (after Naville, E., 1896,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 2
, London, Plate XLIX)
4.3 The infant Hatchepsut in the arms of a divine nurse (after Naville, E., 1896,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 2,
London, Plate LIII)
4.4 Hatchepsut and Amen on a block from the Chapelle Rouge
4.5 Plan of Hatchepsut's king's tomb (after Davis, T. M., ed., 1906,
The Tomb of Hatshopsitu
, London, Plate 8)
4.6 The goddess Isis from the sarcophagus of Hatchepsut

Chapter 5

5.1 Hatchepsut as a man (after Naville, E., 1908,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari
, 6, London, Plate CLVII)
5.2 Tree being transported from Punt (after Naville, E.,
1898, The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 3
, London, Plate LXXIV)
5.3 House on stilts, Punt (after Naville, E., 1898,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari
, 3, London, Plate LXIX)
5.4 The obese queen of Punt (after Naville, E., 1898,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 3
, London, Plate LXIX)
5.5 Ape from Punt (after Naville, E., 1898,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 3,
London, Plate LXXVI)
5.6 Tuthmosis III offers before the barque of Amen (after Naville, E., 1898,
The Temple of Deir el-Bahari, 3
, London, Plate LXXXII)

Chapter 6

6.1 Plan of the Speos Artemidos (after Fairman, H. W. and Grdseloff, B., 1947, Texts of Hatshepsut and Sethos I inside Speos Artemidos,
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
33, Fig. 1)
6.2 Reconstruction of the Amen temple at Karnak during the reign of Hatchepsut
6.3 Plan of
Djeser-Djeseru
6.4 Hatchepsut being suckled by the goddess Hathor in the form of a cow (after Davis, T.M., ed., 1906,
The Tomb of Hatshopsitu
, London, Plate 58)
6.5 Hathor in her anthropoid form (after Sharpe, S., 1859,
The History of Egypt
, London, Fig. 101)

Chapter 7

7.1 The damaged figure of Senenmut from Tomb 353 (after Dorman, P. F, 1991,
The Tombs of Senenmut
, New York, Plate 81)
7.2 Sketch-portrait of Senenmut from the wall of Tomb 353
7.3 Hatchepsut and Senenmut? Crude graffito from a Deir el-Bahri tomb (after Manniche, L., 1977, Some Aspects of Ancient Egyptian Sexual Life,
Acta Orientalia
38, Fig. 4)
7.4 Senenmut worshipping at
Djeser-Djeseru
7.5 Plan and reconstruction of the façade of Tomb 71 (based on Dorman, P. F., 1991,
The Tombs of Senenmut
, New York, Plates 4a and 4c)
7.6 Plan of Tomb 353 (after Dorman, P. F., 1991,
The Tombs of Senenmut
, New York, Plate 51c)

Chapter 8

8.1 The cartouche of King Tuthmosis III
8.2 Tuthmosis III being suckled by the tree-goddess Isis (after Stevenson Smith, W, revised by W. K. Simpson, 1981,
The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt
, New Haven and London, Plate 257)
8.3 Tuthmosis III and his mother Isis, boating through the Underworld (after Stevenson Smith, W, revised by W. K. Simpson, 1981,
The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt
, New Haven and London, Plate 257)
8.4 The High Priestess of Amen-Re, Hatchepsut (after Budge, E.A.W., 1902,
Egypt and her Asiatic Empire
, London, Fig. 3)

Maps and Chronologies

Maps

Chronologies

The Tuthmoside Family Tree
Historical Events

Acknowledgements

Many people have helped with the preparation of this book, and I would like to express my gratitude to all concerned. First and foremost I must thank my husband, Steven Snape, for his unflagging support, encouragement and cooking. Thanks are also due to Eleo Gordon and Sheila Watson who gave practical advice whenever needed, to Bill Tyldesley who provided translations from German sources, and to the members of the Liverpool University S.E.S. photography department, Ian Qualtrough and Suzanne Yee, who produced photographic prints at lightning speed. Plates 5 and 10 are published by kind permission of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

BOOK: Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh
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