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Authors: Antony Beevor

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The battle for Spain: the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

BOOK: The battle for Spain: the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939
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THE BATTLE FOR SPAIN

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(1982)

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(with Artemis Cooper, 1994)

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Berlin: The Downfall
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The Mystery of Olga Chekhova
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A Writer at War: Vasily Grossman with the Red Army
1941–1945 Edited and translated with Luba Vinogradova (2005)

THE BATTLE FOR SPAIN

THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR 1936–1939

ANTONY BEEVOR

Weidenfeld & Nicolson

LONDON

First published in Great Britain in 2006
by Weidenfeld & Nicolson

An earlier version of this book was published by Orbis Publishing Ltd in 1982
under the title
The Spanish Civil War

© Ocito Ltd 2006

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher.

The right of Antony Beevor to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 1-4295-1201-6

The Orion Publishing Group’s policy is to use papers that are natural, renewable and recyclable products and made from wood grown in sustainable forests. The logging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Weidenfeld & Nicolson

The Orion Publishing Group Ltd
Orion House
5 Upper Saint Martin’s Lane
London, WC2H 9EA

www.orionbooks.co.uk

For Gonzalo Pontón with all my gratitude for all his help

CONTENTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
MAPS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
INTRODUCTION
POLITICAL PARTIES, GROUPINGS AND ORGANIZATIONS
INITIALS

 

PART ONE:
Old Spain and the Second Republic

1 Their Most Catholic Majesties

2  Royal Exit

3  The Second Republic

4  The Popular Front

5  The Fatal Paradox

 

PART TWO:
The War of Two Spains

6  The Rising of the Generals

7  The Struggle for Control

8  The Red Terror

9  The White Terror

10  The Nationalist Zone

11  The Republican Zone

12  The Army of Africa and the People’s Militias

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSERT I

 

PART THREE:
The Civil War Becomes International

13  Arms and the Diplomats

14  Sovereign States

15  The Soviet Union and the Spanish Republic

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSERT II

 

16  The International Brigades and the Soviet Advisers

17  The Battle for Madrid

 

PART FOUR:
World War by Proxy

18  The Metamorphosis of the War

19  The Battles of the Jarama and Guadalajara

20  The War in the North

21  The Propaganda War and the Intellectuals

 

PART FIVE:
Internal Tensions

22  The Struggle for Power

23  The Civil War within the Civil War

24  The Battle of Brunete

25  The Beleaguered Republic

26  The War in Aragón

27  The Destruction of the Northern Front and of Republican Idealism

 

PART SIX:
The Route to Disaster

28  The Battle of Teruel and Franco’s ‘Victorious Sword’

29  Hopes of Peace Destroyed

30  Arriba España!

31  The Battle of the Ebro

32  The Republic in the European Crisis

33  The Fall of Catalonia

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSERT III

 

34  The Collapse of the Republic

 

PART SEVEN:
Vae Victis!

35  The New Spain and the Franquist Gulag

36  The Exiles and the Second World War

37  The Unfinished War

38  Lost Causes

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY
SOURCES
NOTES
INDEX

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Sections of photographs appear on end of the book.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSERT I
:

King Alfonso XIII getting to know his people
1

King Alfonso XIII with General Miguel Primo de Rivera
2

Crowds celebrating in Madrid, 14 April
1931
2

Lerroux, President Alcalá Zamora and Gil Robles, 1934
3

Civil guards arrest a socialist in Madrid, October 1934
3

Civil Guards escort their prisoners after the failed revolution in Asturias, October 1934
3

José Antonio Primo de Rivera and fellow Falangists
3

Shooting breaks out during the funeral of a civil guard officer suspected of an attempt to kill President Azaña, April 1936
3

Franco reaches Ceuta from the Canary Islands to take over command of the Army of Africa, 18 July 1936
1

Carlist volunteers flock to the main square of Pamplona to become General Mola’s main force, 19 July 1936
4

Assault guards and anarcho-syndicalist workers of the CNT with a captured field-gun in Barcelona
3

POUM militia in the Carlos Marx barracks in Barcelona
3

A
bandera
of the Foreign Legion rounds up villagers during Yagüe’s advance north, August 1936
3

Colonel Varela’s troops advance into Toledo, 28 September 1936
2

Colonel Moscardó, Varela and Franco celebrate the relief of the Alcázar of Toledo
3

Yagüe, Franco and Serrano Súñer
3

Luftwaffe pilots with their Heinkel He-45 fighter-bombers
3

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSERT II
:

Dolores Ibárruri, ‘La Pasionaria’, making a speech, 14 October 1936
2

The captain of a Soviet ship is welcomed by Companys and Antonov-Ovseenko
3

Mikhail Koltsov and Roman Karmen in the trenches before Madrid
2

The fighting in the Casa de Campo, November 1936
3

Refugees sheltering in the Madrid metro during an air-raid
3

International Brigade troops march through Madrid
3

Propaganda photo of a Soviet pilot with his ‘Chato’
2

Women in Málaga terrified by a nationalist air raid
3

Carliest
requetés
being blessed before going into battle
3

Colonel Wolfram von Richthofen with nationalist and Condor Legion officers
3
El Campesino making a speech
3

Juan García Oliver broadcasts an appeal for calm during the May events in Catalonia
3

Assault guards brought in to restore order marching through Barcelona, 6 May 1937
2

General Pozas and communist officers take over the Catalan council of defence, May 1937
3

Juan Modesto at the Battle of Brunete, July 1937
2

Republican wounded at Brunete
2

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSERT III
:

The winter fighting of Teruel, December 1937
2

An International Brigade officer at Teruel
2

Prieto observes the fighting at Teruel
2

Condor Legion Stukas with nationalist markings, 1938
2

Panzer Mark Is advancing
3

The nationalists reach the sea at Vinaròs, 15 April 1938
2

Condor Legion 88mm anti-aircraft guns, summer 1938
2

Republican soldiers under bombardment during the Battle of the Ebro
2

A republican hospital train behind the Ebro front, summer 1938
3

General Rojo, Juan Negrín and Líster at a farewell parade for the International Brigades, October 1938
2

Colonel Casado listens while Julián Besteiro broadcasts the manifesto of the National Council of Defence, March 1939
5

Republican refugees swarm across the French frontier in the Pyrenees, January 1939
6

Republican prisoners in the French internment camp of Le Vernet
3

Condor Legion standard dipped in salute to Franco at the victory parade, 19 May 1939
2

The indoctrination of republican orphans
3

Hitler and Franco meet at La Hendaye (photo montage), October 1940
2

The Spanish Blue Division in Russia on the Leningrad front
2

 

1
Arxiu Nacional de Catalunya

2
Agencia EFE

BOOK: The battle for Spain: the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939
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