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Authors: Perminder S. Sachdev

Secondary Schizophrenia

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Secondary Schizophrenia

Secondary Schizophrenia

Edited by

Perminder S. Sachdev

Scientia Professor of Neuropsychiatry, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales
Director, Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick
New South Wales, Australia

Consulting Editor

Matcheri S. Keshavan

Stanley Cobb Professor and Vice Chair for Public Psychiatry
Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center,
and Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Cambridge University Press

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
www.cambridge.org

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521856973

© Cambridge University Press 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published in print format 2010

ISBN-13

978-0-51178927-4

eBook (NetLibrary)

ISBN-13 978-0-52185697-3

Hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Every effort has been made in preparing this publication to provide accurate and up-to-date information which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Although case histories are drawn from actual cases, every effort has been made to disguise the identities of the individuals involved.

Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation. The authors, editors and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this publication. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use.

Contents

List of contributors

page
vii

Preface

xiii

Section 1 – Introduction

Drugs and schizophrenia-like psychosis
1

Neurobiology and etiology of primary

8

Substance-induced psychosis:

schizophrenia: current status

3

an overview

112

Matcheri S. Keshavan and Ripu D. Jindal
Jagadisha Thirthalli, Vivek Benegal, and
Bangalore N. Gangadhar

2

The concept of organicity and its

application to schizophrenia

16

9

Stimulants and psychosis

127

Perminder S. Sachdev

Nash N. Boutros, Matt P. Galloway, and
Eric M. Pihlgren

3

Secondary hallucinations

21

Mark Walterfang, Ramon Mocellin,

10
Psychotomimetic effects of PCP, LSD,

David L. Copolov, and Dennis Velakoulis
and Ecstasy: pharmacological models

of schizophrenia?

141

Section 2 – The neurology of

Vibeke S. Catts and Stanley V. Catts
schizophrenia

11
Schizophrenia secondary to cannabis

use

169

4

The neurologic examination in

Wayne Hall and Louisa Degenhardt

schizophrenia

47

12
Toxic psychosis

179

Richard D. Sanders and Matcheri S. Keshavan
Rajeev Kumar and Jeffrey C. L. Looi
5

Functional neuroimaging in

schizophrenia

60

Serge A. Mitelman, Jane Zhang, and
Other neurological disorders

Monte S. Buchsbaum

13
Schizophrenia-like psychosis and

traumatic brain injury

186

Section 3 – Organic syndromes of

Perminder S. Sachdev

schizophrenia

14
Cerebrovascular disease and psychosis

197

Osvaldo P. Almeida and Sergio E. Starkstein
Epilepsy and schizophrenia

15
Neurodegenerative disorders

(Alzheimer’s Disease, frontotemporal

6

Schizophrenia-like psychosis and

dementia) and schizophrenia-like

epilepsy

79

psychosis

204

Perminder S. Sachdev

Nicola T. Lautenschlager and Alexander F. Kurz
7

Understanding the pathophysiology of

16
Storage disorders and psychosis

214

schizophrenia through the looking

Mark Walterfang and Dennis Velakoulis
glass of forced normalization

103

Ennapadam S. Krishnamoorthy and

17
Mitochondrial disorders and psychosis

229

v

Seethalakshmi Ramanathan

Dennis Velakoulis and Mark Walterfang
Contents

18
Psychosis associated with

Section 4 – Related concepts

leukodystrophies

241

Patricia I. Rosebush, Rebecca Anglin, and
30
The Charles Bonnet Syndrome

369

Michael Mazurek

William Burke

19
Normal pressure hydrocephalus

257

31
Acute brief psychosis – an organic

Julian Trollor

syndrome?

380

Anand K. Pandurangi

20
Brain tumors

263

Malcolm Hopwood and Lyn-May Lim

Section 5 – Treatment

21
Demyelinating disease and psychosis

273

Anthony Feinstein

32
Drug treatment of secondary

schizophrenia

393

Michael D. Jibson and Rajiv Tandon
Systemic disorders

33
Nonpharmacological interventions in

22
Infection and schizophrenia

279

secondary schizophrenia

406

Alan S. Brown and Ezra S. Susser

David J. Kavanagh, Jennifer M. Connolly,
and Kim T. Mueser

Genetic disorders related to SLP

23
The status of genetic investigations of

schizophrenia

288

Index
419

Bryan Mowry

Color plate section follows pa
ge 178.

24
Velocardiofacial syndrome

(chromosome 22q11.2 deletion

syndrome) as a model of schizophrenia

309

Vandana Shashi and Margaret N. Berry
25
Psychosis in Prader-Willi Syndrome

328

Stewart L. Einfeld, Sophie Kavanagh,
Arabella Smith, and Bruce J. Tonge
26
Friedreich’s Ataxia and

schizophrenia-like psychosis

332

Perminder S. Sachdev

27
Wilson’s Disease

337

Edward C. Lauterbach and Leslie Lester-Burns
28
Huntington’s Disease and related

disorders and their association with

schizophrenia-like psychosis

348

Perminder S. Sachdev

29
Fahr’s Disease and psychosis

358

Kim Burns and Henry Brodaty

vi

Contributors

Osvaldo P. Almeida MD PhD FRANZCP FFPOA

Henry Brodaty MB BS MD DSc FRACP FRANZCP

Director of Research

Professor

Western Australian Centre for Health and Ageing
Primary Dementia Collaborative Research
(WACHA),

Centre,

Western Australian Institute for Medical Research;
School of Psychiatry,

Consultant, Department of Psychiatry
University of New South Wales;

Royal Perth Hospital;

and Aged Care Psychiatry,

and Professor and Chair of Geriatric Psychiatry
Euroa Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital,
School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences,
Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences,
University of Western Australia,

Alan S. Brown MD MPH

Perth, Australia

Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry and
Clinical Epidemiology

Rebecca Anglin MD

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia
Resident

University,

Joint Program of Neurology and Psychiatry,
New York State Psychiatric Institute,
McMaster University,

New York, New York, USA

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Monte S. Buchsbaum MD

Vivek Benegal MD DPM

Professor of Psychiatry

Associate Professor of Psychiatry

Neuroscience PET Laboratory,

Deaddiction Centre,

Mount Sinai School of Medicine,

National Institute of Mental Health and
New York, New York, USA

Neurosciences (NIMHANS),

Bangalore, India

William Burke PhD

Emeritus Professor of Physiology

Margaret N. Berry MS CGC

Brain Research Laboratory,

Department of Pediatrics

Discipline of Anatomy and Physiology,
Section on Medical Genetics,

School of Medical Sciences and Bosch
Wake Forest University School of Medicine,
Institute,

Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
The University of Sydney,

New South Wales, Australia

Nash N. Boutros MD

Professor

Kim Burns RN BPsych (Hons)

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Research Psychologist

Neurosciences,

Academic Department for Old Age Psychiatry,
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Prince of Wales Hospital, Euroa Centre,
Detroit, Michigan, USA

BOOK: Secondary Schizophrenia
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