Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (61 page)

31
.  Naveh, ‘Changes in the Perception of Animals and Plants’, 11.

3
The Human Spark

1
.   ‘Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design’, Gallup, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/21814/evolution-creationism-intelligent-design.aspx; Frank Newport, ‘In US, 46 per cent Hold Creationist View of Human Origins’, Gallup, 1 June 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/155003/hold-creationist-view-human-origins.aspx.

2
.   Gregg,
Are Dolphins Really Smart?
, 82–3.

3
.   Stanislas Dehaene,
Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts
(New York: Viking, 2014); Steven Pinker,
How the Mind Works
(New York: W. W. Norton, 1997).

4
.   Dehaene,
Consciousness and the Brain
.

5
.   Pundits may point to Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, according to which no system of mathematical axioms can prove all arithmetic truths. There will always be some true statements that cannot be proven within the system. In popular literature this theorem is sometimes hijacked to account for the existence of mind. Allegedly, minds are needed to deal with such unprovable truths. However, it is far from obvious why living beings need to engage with such arcane mathematical truths in order to survive and reproduce. In fact, the vast majority of our conscious decisions do not involve such issues at all.

6
.   Christopher Steiner,
Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World
(New York: Penguin, 2012), 215; Tom Vanderbilt, ‘Let the Robot Drive: The Autonomous Car of the Future is Here’,
Wired
, 20 January 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.wired.com/2012/01/ff_autonomouscars/all/; Chris Urmson, ‘The Self-Driving Car Logs More Miles on New Wheels’, Google Official Blog, 7 August 2012, accessed 23 December 2014, http://googleblog.blogspot.hu/2012/08/the-self-driving-car-logs-more-miles-on.html; Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run into Problem: Cars with Drivers’,
New York Times
, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1.

7
.   Dehaene,
Consciousness and the Brain
.

8
.   Ibid., ch. 7.

9
.   ‘The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness’, 7 July 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20131109230457/http://fcmconference.org/img/CambridgeDeclarationOnConsciousness.pdf.

10
.  John F. Cyran, Rita J. Valentino and Irwin Lucki, ‘Assessing Substrates Underlying the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants Using the Modified Rat Forced Swimming Test’,
Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews
29:4–5 (2005), 569–74; Benoit Petit-Demoulière, Frank Chenu and Michel Bourin, ‘Forced Swimming Test in Mice: A Review of Antidepressant Activity’,
Psychopharmacology
177:3 (2005), 245–55; Leda S. B. Garcia et al., ‘Acute Administration of Ketamine Induces Antidepressant-like Effects in the Forced Swimming Test and Increases BDNF Levels in the Rat Hippocampus’,
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
32:1 (2008), 140–4; John F. Cryan, Cedric Mombereau and Annick Vassout, ‘The Tail Suspension Test as a Model for Assessing Antidepressant Activity: Review of Pharmacological and Genetic Studies in Mice’,
Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews
29:4–5 (2005), 571– 625; James J. Crowley, Julie A. Blendy and Irwin Lucki, ‘Strain-dependent Antidepressant-like Effects of Citalopram in the Mouse Tail Suspension Test’,
Psychopharmacology
183:2 (2005), 257–64; Juan C. Brenes, Michael Padilla and Jaime Fornaguera, ‘A Detailed Analysis of Open-Field Habituation and Behavioral and Neurochemical Antidepressant-like Effects in Postweaning Enriched Rats’,
Behavioral Brain Research
197:1 (2009), 125–37; Juan Carlos Brenes Sáenz, Odir Rodríguez Villagra and Jaime Fornaguera Trías, ‘Factor Analysis of Forced Swimming Test, Sucrose Preference Test and Open Field Test on Enriched, Social and Isolated Reared Rats’,
Behavioral Brain Research
169:1 (2006), 57–65.

11
.  Marc Bekoff, ‘Observations of Scent-Marking and Discriminating Self from Others by a Domestic Dog (
Canis familiaris
): Tales of Displaced Yellow Snow’,
Behavioral Processes
55:2 (2011), 75–9.

12
.  For different levels of self-consciousness, see: Gregg,
Are Dolphins Really Smart?
, 59–66.

13
.  Carolyn R. Raby et al., ‘Planning for the Future by Western Scrub Jays’,
Nature
445:7130 (2007), 919–21.

14
.  Michael Balter, ‘Stone-Throwing Chimp is Back – and This Time It’s Personal’,
Science
, 9 May 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://news.sciencemag.org/2012/05/stone-throwing-chimp-back-and-time-its-personal; Sara J. Shettleworth, ‘Clever Animals and Killjoy Explanations in Comparative Psychology’,
Trends in Cognitive Sciences
14:11 (2010), 477–81.

15
.  Gregg,
Are Dolphins Really Smart?
; Nicola S. Clayton, Timothy J. Bussey and Anthony Dickinson, ‘Can Animals Recall the Past and Plan for the Future?’,
Nature Reviews Neuroscience
4:8 (2003), 685–91; William A. Roberts, ‘Are Animals Stuck in Time?’,
Psychological Bulletin
128:3 (2002), 473–89; Endel Tulving, ‘Episodic Memory and Autonoesis: Uniquely Human?’, in
The Missing Link in Cognition: Evolution of Self-Knowing Consciousness
, ed. Herbert S. Terrace and Janet Metcalfe (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 3–56; Mariam Naqshbandi and William A. Roberts, ‘Anticipation of Future Events in Squirrel Monkeys (
Saimiri sciureus
) and Rats (
Rattus norvegicus
): Tests of the Bischof–Kohler Hypothesis’,
Journal of Comparative Psychology
120:4 (2006), 345–57.

16
.  I. B. A. Bartal, J. Decety and P. Mason, ‘Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats’,
Science
334:6061 (2011), 1427–30; Gregg,
Are Dolphins Really Smart?
, 89.

17
.  Christopher B. Ruff, Erik Trinkaus and Trenton W. Holliday, ‘Body Mass and Encephalization in Pleistocene
Homo
’,
Nature
387:6629 (1997), 173–6; Maciej Henneberg and Maryna Steyn, ‘Trends in Cranial Capacity and Cranial Index in Subsaharan Africa During the Holocene’,
American Journal of Human Biology
5:4 (1993), 473–9; Drew H. Bailey and David C. Geary, ‘Hominid Brain Evolution: Testing Climatic, Ecological, and Social Competition Models’,
Human Nature
20:1 (2009), 67–79; Daniel J. Wescott and Richard L. Jantz, ‘Assessing Craniofacial Secular Change in American Blacks and Whites Using Geometric Morphometry’, in
Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology: Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects
, ed. Dennis E. Slice (New York: Plenum Publishers, 2005), 231–45.

18
.  See also Edward O. Wilson,
The Social Conquest of the Earth
(New York: Liveright, 2012).

19
.  Cyril Edwin Black (ed.),
The Transformation of Russian Society: Aspects of Social Change since
1861 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970), 279.

20
.  NAEMI09, ‘Nicolae Ceauşescu LAST SPEECH (english subtitles) part 1 of 2’, 22 April 2010, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWIbCtz_Xwk.

21
.  Tom Gallagher,
Theft of a Nation: Romania since Communism
(London: Hurst, 2005).

22
.  Robin Dunbar,
Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998).

23
.  TVP University, ‘Capuchin Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay’, 15 December 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKhAd0Tyny0.

24
.  Quoted in Christopher Duffy,
Military Experience in the Age of Reason
(London: Routledge, 2005), 98–9.

25
.  Serhii Ploghy,
The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union
(London: Oneworld, 2014), 309.

4
The Storytellers

1
.   Fekri A. Hassan, ‘Holocene Lakes and Prehistoric Settlements of the Western Fayum, Egypt’,
Journal of Archaeological Science
13:5 (1986), 393– 504; Gunther Garbrecht, ‘Water Storage (Lake Moeris) in the Fayum Depression, Legend or Reality?’,
Irrigation and Drainage Systems
1:3 (1987), 143–57; Gunther Garbrecht, ‘Historical Water Storage for Irrigation in the Fayum Depression (Egypt)’,
Irrigation and Drainage Systems
10:1 (1996), 47–76.

2
.   Yehuda Bauer,
A History of the Holocaust
(Danbur: Franklin Watts, 2001), 249.

3
.   Jean C. Oi,
State and Peasant in Contemporary China: The Political Economy of Village Government
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 91; Jasper Becker,
Hungry Ghosts: China’s Secret Famine
(London: John Murray, 1996); Frank Dikkoter,
Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe,
1958–62 (London: Bloomsbury, 2010).

4
.   Martin Meredith,
The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair: A History of Fifty Years of Independence
(New York: Public Affairs, 2006); Sven Rydenfelt, ‘Lessons from Socialist Tanzania’,
The Freeman
36:9 (1986); David Blair, ‘Africa in a Nutshell’,
Telegraph
, 10 May 2006, accessed 22 December 2014, http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/davidblair/3631941/Africa_in_a_nutshell/.

5
.   Roland Anthony Oliver,
Africa since
1800, 5th edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 100–23; David van Reybrouck,
Congo: The Epic History of a People
(New York: HarperCollins, 2014), 58–9.

6
.   Ben Wilbrink, ‘Assessment in Historical Perspective’,
Studies in Educational Evaluation
23:1 (1997), 31–48.

7
.   M. C. Lemon,
Philosophy of History
(London and New York: Routledge, 2003), 28–44; Siep Stuurman, ‘Herodotus and Sima Qian: History and the Anthropological Turn in Ancient Greece and Han China’,
Journal of World History
19:1 (2008), 1–40.

8
.   William Kelly Simpson,
The Literature of Ancient Egypt
(Yale: Yale University Press, 1973), 332–3.

5
The Odd Couple

1
.   C. Scott Dixon,
Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania,
1517–1740 (Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 15; Peter W. Williams,
America’s Religions: From Their Origins to the Twenty-First Century
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008), 82.

2
.   Glenn Hausfater and Sarah Blaffer (eds),
Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives
(New York: Aldine, 1984), 449; Valeria Alia,
Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in the Inuit Homeland
(New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), 23; Lewis Petrinovich,
Human Evolution, Reproduction and Morality
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998), 256; Richard A. Posner,
Sex and Reason
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 289.

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