Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (63 page)

18
.  Gazzaniga,
Who’s in Charge?
, ch. 3.

19
.  Jorge Luis Borges,
Collected Fictions
, trans. Andrew Hurley (New York: Penguin Books, 1999), 308–9. For a Spanish version see: Jorge Luis Borges, ‘Un problema’, in
Obras completas
, vol. 3 (Buenos Aires: Emece Editores, 1968–9), 29–30.

20
.  Mark Thompson,
The White War
:
Life and Death on the Italian Front,
1915–1919 (New York: Basic Books, 2009).

9
The Great Decoupling

1
.   F. M. Anderson (ed.),
The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France:
1789–1907, 2nd edn (Minneapolis: H. W. Wilson, 1908), 184–5; Alan Forrest, ‘L’armée de l’an II: la levée en masse et la création d’un mythe républicain’,
Annales historiques de la Révolution française
335 (2004), 111–30.

2
.
   Morris Edmund Spears (ed.),
World War Issues and Ideals: Readings in Contemporary History and Literature
(Boston and New York: Ginn and Company, 1918), 242. The most significant recent study, widely quoted by both proponents and opponents, attempts to prove that soldiers of democracy fight better: Dan Reiter and Allan C. Stam,
Democracies at War
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).

3
.   Doris Stevens,
Jailed for Freedom
(New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920), 290. See also Susan R. Grayzel,
Women and the First World War
(Harlow: Longman, 2002), 101–6; Christine Bolt,
The Women’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the
1790
s to the
1920
s
(Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 236–76; Birgitta Bader-Zaar, ‘Women’s Suffrage and War: World War I and Political Reform in a Comparative Perspective’, in
Suffrage, Gender and Citizenship: International Perspectives on Parliamentary Reforms
, ed. Irma Sulkunen, Seija-Leena Nevala-Nurmi and Pirjo Markkola (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), 193–218.

4
.   Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run into Problem: Cars with Drivers’,
New York Times
, 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1; Shawn DuBravac,
Digital Destiny: How the New Age of Data Will Transform the Way We Work, Live and Communicate
(Washington DC: Regnery Publishing, 2015), 127–56.

5
.   Bradley Hope, ‘Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over “Unfair Advantage” for High-Frequency Traders Dismissed’,
Wall Street Journal
, 29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-over-unfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, ‘High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claims’,
Huffington Post
, 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/26/high-frequency-trading-lawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, ‘Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humans’, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-23/fake-report-erasing-136-billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, ‘How the Robots Lost: High-Frequency Trading’s Rise and Fall’,
Bloomberg Businessweek
, 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/123468-how-the-robots-lost-high-frequency-tradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner,
Automate This
, 2–5, 11–52; Luke Dormehl,
The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems – And Create More
(London: Penguin, 2014), 223.

6
.   Jordan Weissmann, ‘iLawyer: What Happens when Computers Replace Attorneys?’,
Atlantic
, 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-when-computers-replace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, ‘Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software’,
New York Times
, 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Adi Narayan, ‘The fMRI Brain Scan: A Better Lie Detector?’,
Time
, 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546-2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, ‘Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detector’,
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
7:54 (2013); Steiner,
Automate This
, 217; Dormehl,
The Formula
, 229.

7
.   B. P. Woolf,
Building Intelligent Interactive Tutors: Student-centered Strategies for Revolutionizing E-learning
(Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann, 2010); Annie Murphy Paul, ‘The Machines are Taking Over’,
New York Times
, 14 September 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/magazine/how-computerized-tutors-are-learning-to-teach-humans.html?_r=0; P. J. Munoz-Merino, C. D. Kloos and M. Munoz-Organero, ‘Enhancement of Student Learning Through the Use of a Hinting Computer e-Learning System and Comparison With Human Teachers’,
IEEE Transactions on Education
54:1 (2011), 164–7; Mindojo, accessed 14 July 2015, http://mindojo.com/.

8
.   Steiner,
Automate This
, 146–62; Ian Steadman, ‘IBM’s Watson Is Better at Diagnosing Cancer than Human Doctors’,
Wired
, 11 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-02/11/ibm-watson-medical-doctor; ‘Watson Is Helping Doctors Fight Cancer’, IBM, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson_in_healthcare.shtml; Vinod Khosla, ‘Technology Will Replace 80 per cent of What Doctors Do’,
Fortune
, 4 December 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/12/04/technology-doctors-khosla; Ezra Klein, ‘How Robots Will Replace Doctors’,
Washington Post
, 10 January 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/post/how-robots-will-replace-doctors/2011/08/25/gIQASA17AL_blog.html.

9
.   Tzezana,
The Guide to the Future
, 62–4.

10
.  Steiner,
Automate This
, 155.

11
.  http://www.mattersight.com.

12
.  Steiner,
Automate This
, 178–82; Dormehl,
The Formula
, 21–4; Shana Lebowitz, ‘Every Time You Dial into These Call Centers, Your Personality Is Being Silently Assessed’,
Business Insider
, 3 September 2015, retrieved 31 January 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mattersight-uses-personality-science-2015-9.

13
.  Rebecca Morelle, ‘Google Machine Learns to Master Video Games’, BBC, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31623427; Elizabeth Lopatto, ‘Google’s AI Can Learn to Play Video Games’,
The Verge
, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/2/25/8108399/google-ai-deepmind-video-games; Volodymyr Mnih et al., ‘Human-Level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learning’,
Nature
, 26 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14236.html.

14
.  Michael Lewis,
Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game
(New York: W. W. Norton, 2003). Also see the 2011 film
Moneyball
, directed by Bennett Miller and starring Brad Pitt as Billy Beane.

15
.  Frank Levy and Richard Murnane,
The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004); Dormehl,
The Formula
, 225–6.

16
.  Tom Simonite, ‘When Your Boss is an Uber Algorithm’,
MIT Technology Review
, 1 December 2015, retrieved 4 February 2016, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/543946/when-your-boss-is-an-uber-algorithm/.

17
.  Simon Sharwood, ‘Software “Appointed to Board” of Venture Capital Firm’,
The Register
, 18 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/18/software_appointed_to_board_of_venture_capital_firm/; John Bates, ‘I’m the Chairman of the Board’,
Huffington Post
, 6 April 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-bates/im-the-chairman-of-the-bo_b_5440591.html; Colm Gorey, ‘I’m Afraid I Can’t Invest in That, Dave: AI Appointed to VC Funding Board’,
Silicon Republic
, 15 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, https://www.siliconrepublic.com/discovery/2014/05/15/im-afraid-i-cant-invest-in-that-dave-ai-appointed-to-vc-funding-board.

18
.  Steiner,
Automate This
, 89–101; D. H. Cope,
Comes the Fiery Night: 2,000 Haiku by Man and Machine
(Santa Cruz: Create Space, 2011). See also: Dormehl,
The Formula
, 174–80, 195–8, 200–2, 216–20; Steiner,
Automate This
, 75–89.

19
.  Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, ‘The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?’, 17 September 2013, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf.

20
.  E. Brynjolfsson and A. McAffee,
Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy
(Lexington: Digital Frontier Press, 2011).

21
.  Nick Bostrom,
Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

22
.  Ido Efrati, ‘Researchers Conducted a Successful Experiment with an “Artificial Pancreas” Connected to an iPhone’ [in Hebrew],
Haaretz
, 17 June 2014, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/health/1.2350956. Moshe Phillip et al., ‘Nocturnal Glucose Control with an Artificial Pancreas at a Diabetes Camp’,
New England Journal of Medicine
368:9 (2013), 824–33; ‘Artificial Pancreas Controlled by iPhone Shows Promise in Diabetes Trial’,
Today
, 17 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.todayonline.com/world/artificial-pancreas-controlled-iphone-shows-promise-diabetes-trial?singlepage=true.

23
.  Dormehl,
The Formula
, 7–16.

24
.  Martha Mendoza, ‘Google Develops Contact Lens Glucose Monitor’, Yahoo News, 17 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://news.yahoo.com/google-develops-contact-lens-glucose-monitor-000147894.html; Mark Scott, ‘Novartis Joins with Google to Develop Contact Lens That Monitors Blood Sugar’,
New York Times
, 15 July 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/international/novartis-joins-with-google-to-develop-contact-lens-to-monitor-blood-sugar.html?_r=0; Rachel Barclay, ‘Google Scientists Create Contact Lens to Measure Blood Sugar Level in Tears’, Healthline, 23 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.healthline.com/health-news/diabetes-google-develops-glucose-monitoring-contact-lens-012314.

25
.  Quantified Self, http://quantifiedself.com/; Dormehl,
The Formula
, 11–16.

26
.  Dormehl,
The Formula
, 91–5; Bedpost, http://bedposted.com.

27
.  Dormehl,
The Formula
, 53–9.

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