Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (59 page)

29
.  Kim Hill et al., ‘Mortality Rates among Wild Chimpanzees’,
Journal of Human Evolution
40:5 (2001), 437–50; James G. Herndon, ‘Brain Weight Throughout the Life Span of the Chimpanzee’,
Journal of Comparative Neurology
409 (1999), 567–72.

30
.  Beatrice Scheubel,
Bismarck’s Institutions: A Historical Perspective on the Social Security Hypothesis
(Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013); E. P. Hannock,
The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany,
1850–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

31
.  ‘Mental Health: Age Standardized Suicide Rates (per 100,000 population), 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 28 December 2014, http://gamapserver.who.int/gho/interactive_charts/mental_health/suicide_rates/atlas.html.

32
.  Ian Morris,
Why the West Rules – For Now
(Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2010), 626–9.

33
.  David G. Myers, ‘The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People’,
American Psychologist
55:1 (2000), 61; Ronald Inglehart et al., ‘Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective (1981–2007)’,
Perspectives on Psychological Science
3:4 (2008), 264–85. See also Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’,
American Psychologist
54:10 (1999), 821–7; Gregg Easterbrook,
The Progress Paradox: How Life Gets Better While People Feel Worse
(New York: Random House, 2003).

34
.  Kenji Suzuki, ‘Are They Frigid to the Economic Development? Reconsideration of the Economic Effect on Subjective Well-being in Japan’,
Social Indicators Research
92:1 (2009), 81–9; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Will Raising the Incomes of all Increase the Happiness of All?’,
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization
27:1 (1995), 35–47; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Diminishing Marginal Utility of Income? Caveat Emptor’,
Social Indicators Research
70:3 (2005), 243–55.

35
.  Linda C. Raeder,
John Stuart Mill and the Religion of Humanity
(Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002).

36
.  Oliver Turnbull and Mark Solms,
The Brain and the Inner World
[in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2005), 92–6; Kent C. Berridge and Morten L. Kringelbach, ‘Affective Neuroscience of Pleasure: Reward in Humans and Animals’,
Psychopharmacology
199 (2008), 457–80; Morten L. Kringelbach,
The Pleasure Center: Trust Your Animal Instincts
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

37
.  M. Csikszentmihalyi,
Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life
(New York: Basic Books, 1997).

38
.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html, accessed 4 January 2016; Sarah Harris, ‘Number of Children Given Drugs for ADHD Up Ninefold with Patients As Young As Three Being Prescribed Ritalin’,
Daily Mail
, 28 June 2013, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2351427/Number-children-given-drugs-ADHD-ninefold-patients-young-THREE-prescribed-Ritalin.html, accessed 4 January 2016; International Narcotics Control Board (UN),
Psychotropic Substances, Statistics for
2013
, Assessments of Annual Medical and Scientific Requirements
2014, 39–40.

39
.  There is insufficient evidence regarding the abuse of such stimulants by schoolchildren, but a 2013 study has found that between 5 and 15 per cent of US college students illegally used some kind of stimulant at least once: C. Ian Ragan, Imre Bard and Ilina Singh, ‘What Should We Do about Student Use of Cognitive Enhancers? An Analysis of Current Evidence’,
Neuropharmacology
64 (2013), 589.

40
.  Bradley J. Partridge, ‘Smart Drugs “As Common as Coffee”: Media Hype about Neuroenhancement’,
PLoS One
6:11 (2011), e28416.

41
.  Office of the Chief of Public Affairs Press Release, ‘Army, Health Promotion Risk Reduction Suicide Prevention Report, 2010’, accessed 23 December 2014, http://csf2.army.mil/downloads/HP-RR-SPReport2010.pdf; Mark Thompson, ‘America’s Medicated Army’,
Time
, 5 June 2008, accessed 19 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1812055,00.html; Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force–Iraq and Office of the Command Surgeon, ‘Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06–08: Iraq Operation Enduring Freedom 8: Afghanistan’, 14 February 2008, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.careforthetroops.org/reports/Report-MHATV-4-FEB-2008-Overview.pdf.

42
.  Tina L. Dorsey, ‘Drugs and Crime Facts’, US Department of Justice, accessed 20 February 2015, http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/dcf.pdf; H. C. West, W. J. Sabol and S. J. Greenman, ‘Prisoners in 2009’, US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin (December 2010), 1–38; ‘Drugs and Crime Facts: Drug Use and Crime’, US Department of Justice, accessed 19 December 2014, http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm; ‘Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, July to September 2014’, UK Ministry of Justice, 29 January 2015, accessed 20 February 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/offender-management-statistics-quarterly-july-to-september-2014.; Mirian Lights et al., ‘Gender Differences in Substance Misuse and Mental Health amongst Prisoners’, UK Ministry of Justice, 2013, accessed 20 February 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/220060/gender-substance-misuse-mental-health-prisoners.pdf; Jason Payne and Antonette Gaffney, ‘How Much Crime is Drug or Alcohol Related? Self-Reported Attributions of Police Detainees’,
Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice
439 (2012), http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/tandi_pdf/tandi439.pdf, accessed 11 March 2015; Philippe Robert, ‘The French Criminal Justice System’, in
Punishment in Europe: A Critical Anatomy of Penal Systems
, ed. Vincenzo Ruggiero and Mick Ryan (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 116.

43
.  Betsy Isaacson, ‘Mind Control: How EEG Devices Will Read Your Brain Waves and Change Your World’,
Huffington Post
, 20 November 2014, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/20/mind-control-how-eeg-devices-read-brainwaves_n_2001431.html; ‘EPOC Headset’,
Emotiv
, http://emotiv.com/store/epoc-detail/; ‘Biosensor Innovation to Power Breakthrough Wearable Technologies Today and Tomorrow’,
NeuroSky
, http://neurosky.com/.

44
.  Samantha Payne, ‘Stockholm: Members of Epicenter Workspace Are Using Microchip Implants to Open Doors’,
International Business Times
, 31 January 2015, accessed 9 August 2015, http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/stockholm-office-workers-epicenter-implanted-microchips-pay-their-lunch-1486045.

45
.  Meika Loe,
The Rise of Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America
(New York: New York University Press, 2004).

46
.  Brian Morgan, ‘Saints and Sinners: Sir Harold Gillies’,
Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
95:6 (2013), 204–5; Donald W. Buck II, ‘A Link to Gillies: One Surgeon’s Quest to Uncover His Surgical Roots’,
Annals of Plastic Surgery
68:1 (2012), 1–4.

47
.  Paolo Santoni-Rugio,
A History of Plastic Surgery
(Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007); P. Niclas Broer, Steven M. Levine and Sabrina Juran, ‘Plastic Surgery: Quo Vadis? Current Trends and Future Projections of Aesthetic Plastic Surgical Procedures in the United States’,
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
133:3 (2014), 293e–302e.

48
.  Holly Firfer, ‘How Far Will Couples Go to Conceive?’, CNN, 17 June 2004, accessed 3 May 2015, http://edition.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/03/12/infertility.treatment/index.html?iref=allsearch.

49
.  Rowena Mason and Hannah Devlin, ‘MPs Vote in Favour of “Three-Person Embryo” Law’,
Guardian
, 3 February 2015, accessed 3 May 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/feb/03/mps-vote-favour-three-person-embryo-law.

50
.  Lionel S. Smith and Mark D. E. Fellowes, ‘Towards a Lawn without Grass: The Journey of the Imperfect Lawn and Its Analogues’,
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscape
33:3 (2013), 158–9; John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis (eds),
The Genius of the Place: The English Landscape Garden
1620–1820, 5th edn (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000), 1–45; Anne Helmriech,
The English Garden and National Identity: The Competing Styles of Garden Design
1870–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 1–6.

51
.  Robert J. Lake, ‘Social Class, Etiquette and Behavioral Restraint in British Lawn Tennis’,
International Journal of the History of Sport
28:6 (2011), 876–94; Beatriz Colomina, ‘The Lawn at War: 1941–1961’, in
The American Lawn
, ed. Georges Teyssot (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 135–53; Virginia Scott Jenkins,
The Lawn: History of an American Obsession
(Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1994).

2
The Anthropocene

1
.   ‘
Canis lupus
’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3746/1; ‘Fact Sheet: Gray Wolf’, Defenders of Wildlife, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.defenders.org/gray-wolf/basic-facts; ‘Companion Animals’, IFAH, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.ifaheurope.org/companion-animals/about-pets.html; ‘Global Review 2013’, World Animal Protection, accessed 20 December 2014, https://www.worldanimalprotection.us.org/sites/default/files/us_files/global_review_2013_0.pdf.

2
.   Anthony D. Barnosky, ‘Megafauna Biomass Tradeoff as a Driver of Quaternary and Future Extinctions’,
PNAS
105:1 (2008), 11543–8; for wolves and lions: William J. Ripple et al., ‘Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores’,
Science
343:6167 (2014), 151; according to Dr Stanley Coren there are about 500 million dogs in the world: Stanley Coren, ‘How Many Dogs Are There in the World?’,
Psychology Today
, 19 September 2012, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/canine-corner/201209/how-many-dogs-are-there-in-the-world; for the number of cats, see: Nicholas Wade, ‘DNA Traces 5 Matriarchs of 600 Million Domestic Cats’,
New York Times
, 29 June 2007, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/29/health/29iht-cats.1.6406020.html; for the African buffalo, see: ‘
Syncerus caffer
’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21251/0; for cattle population, see: David Cottle and Lewis Kahn (eds),
Beef Cattle Production and Trade
(Collingwood: Csiro, 2014), 66; for the number of chickens, see: ‘Live Animals’, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Statistical Division, accessed 20 December 2014, http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QA/E; for the number of chimpanzees, see: ‘
Pan troglodytes
’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15933/0.

3
.   ‘Living Planet Report 2014’, WWF Global, accessed 20 December 2014, http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/living_ planet_report/.

4
.   Richard Inger et al., ‘Common European Birds Are Declining Rapidly While Less Abundant Species’ Numbers Are Rising’,
Ecology Letters
18:1 (2014), 28–36; ‘Live Animals’, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, accessed 20 December 2014, http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/default.aspx#ancor.

5
.   Simon L. Lewis and Mark A. Maslin, ‘Defining the Anthropocene’,
Nature
519 (2015), 171–80.

6
.   Timothy F. Flannery,
The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and Peoples
(Port Melbourne: Reed Books Australia, 1994); Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’,
Science
306:5693 (2004), 70–5; Barry W. Brook and David M. J. S. Bowman, ‘The Uncertain Blitzkrieg of Pleistocene Megafauna’,
Journal of Biogeography
31:4 (2004), 517–23; Gifford H. Miller et al., ‘Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction’,
Science
309:5732 (2005), 287–90; Richard G. Roberts et al., ‘New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent Wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago’,
Science
292:5523 (2001), 1888–92; Stephen Wroe and Judith Field, ‘A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’,
Quaternary Science Reviews
25:21–2 (2006), 2692–703; Barry W. Brooks et al., ‘Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct if Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent? Comments on “A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation” by S. Wroe and J. Field’,
Quaternary Science Reviews
26:3–4 (2007), 560–4; Chris S. M. Turney et al., ‘Late-Surviving Megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, Implicate Human Involvement in their Extinction’,
PNAS
105:34 (2008), 12150–3; John Alroy, ‘A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction’,
Science
292:5523 (2001), 1893–6; J. F. O’Connell and J. Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Australia–New Guinea) and the Archaeology of Early Modern Humans’, in
Rethinking the Human Evolution: New Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans
, ed. Paul Mellars (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 400–1.

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