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Authors: Kate Raphael

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Muslim Fortresses in the Levant: Between Crusaders and Mongols

BOOK: Muslim Fortresses in the Levant: Between Crusaders and Mongols
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Muslim Fortresses in the Levant


During much of the twelfth century the Crusaders dominated the military scene in the Levant. The unification of gypt and Syria by Saladin gradually changed the balance of power, which slowly begun to tilt in favor of the Muslims. This book examines the development and role of Muslim fortresses in the Levant at the time of the Crusaders and the Mongol invasion, situating the study within a broad historical, political and military context.

Exploring the unification of Egypt with a large part of Syria and its effect on the balance of power in the region, Raphael gives a historical overview of the resulting military strategies and construction of fortresses. A detailed architectural analysis is based on a survey of four Ayyubid and eight Mamluk fortresses situated in what are today the modern states of Jordan, Israel, Southern Turkey and Egypt (the Sinai Peninsula). The author then exploes the connection between military architecture and the development of siege warfare and examines the influence of methods of rule on the concept of defence and the development of fortifications.

Drawing upon excavation reports, field surveys and contemporary Arabic sources, the book provides the Arabic architectural terminology and touches on the difficulties of reading the sources. Detailed maps of the fortresses in the region, the Mongol invasion routs, plans of sites and photographs assist the reader throughout the book, providing an important addition to existing literature in the areas of Medieval Archaeology, Medieval military history and Middle Eastern studies.

Kate Raphael
is a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Earth and Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. She received her PhD in Medieval Islamic studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and her research currently focuses on environmental disasters in the Medieval Middle East.

Culture and Civilization in the Middle East



General Editor: Ian Richard Netton
Professor of Islamic Studies, University of Exeter


This series studies the Middle East through the twin foci of its diverse cultures and civilisations. Comprising original monographs as well as scholarly surveys, it covers topics in the fields of Middle Eastern literature, archaeology, law, history, philosophy, science, folklore, art, architecture and language. While there is a plurality of views, the series presents serious scholarship in a lucid and stimulating fashion.


The Origins of Islamic Law

The Qur’an, the Muwatta’ and Madinan Amal

Yasin Dutton

A Jewish Archive from Old Cairo

The histoy of Cambridge University’s Genizah Collection

Stefan Reif

The Formative Period of Twelver Shi’ism

Hadith as discourse between Qum and Baghdad

Andrew J. Newman

Qur’an Translation

Discourse, texture and exegesis

Hussein Abdul-Raof

Christians in Al-Andalus 711-1000

Ann Rosemary Christys

Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates

Sayyid Hamid Hurriez

The Formation of Hanbalism

Piety into power

Nimrod Hurvitz

Arabic Literature

An overview

Pierre Cachia

Structure and Meaning in Medieval Arabic and Persian Lyric Poetry

Orient pearls

Julie Scott Meisami

Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily

Arabic-speakers and the end of Islam

Alexander Metcalfe

Modern Arab Historiography

Historical discourse and the nation-state

Youssef Choueiri

The Philosophical Poetics of Alfarabi, Avicenna and Averroes

The Aristotelian reception

Salim Kemal


The Epistemology of Ibn Khaldun

Zaid Ahmad

The Hanbali School of Law and Ibn Taymiyyah

Conflict or concilation

Abdul Hakim I Al-Matroudi

Arabic Rhetoric

A pragmatic analysis

Hussein Abdul-Raof

Arab Representations of the Occident

East–West encounters in Arabic fiction

Rasheed El-Enany

God and Humans in Islamic Though

Abd al-Jabbār, Ibn Sīnā and al-Ghazālī

Maha Elkaisy-Friemuth

Original Islam

Malik and the madhhab of Madina

Yasin Dutton

Al-Ghazali and the Qur’an

One book, many meanings

Martin Whittingham

Birth of The Prophet Muhammad

Devotional piety in Sunni Islam

Marion Holmes Katz

Space and Muslim Urban Life

At the limits of the labyrinth of Fez

Simon O’Meara

Islam Science

The intellectual caeer of Nizam al-Din al-Nizaburi

Robert G. Morrison

Ibn ‘Arabî – Time and Cosmology

Mohamed Haj Yousef

The Status of Women in Islamic Law and Society

Annotated translation of
Imra’tunā fi ‘l-sharī
a wa’l-mujtama
, with an introduction

Ronak Husni and Daniel L. Newman

Islam and the Baha’i Faith

A comparative study of Muhammad ‘Abduh and ‘Abdul-Baha ‘Abbas

Oliver Scharbrodt

Comte de Gobineau and Orientalism

Selected Eastern writings

Translated by Daniel O’Donoghue

Edited by Geoffrey Nash

Early Islamic Spain

The histoy of Ibn al-Qū.tīya

David James

German Orientalism

The study of the iddle East and Islam from 1800 to 1945

Ursula Wokoeck

and Metaphysics

Modulation of being

Sajjad H. Rizvi

Schools of Qur’anic Exegesis

Genesis and development

Hussein Abdul-Raof

Al-Ghazali, Averroes and the Interpretation of the Qur’an

Common sense and philosophy in Islam

Avital Wohlman, translated by David Burrell

Eastern Christianity in the Modern Middle East

Edited by Anthony O’Mahony and Emma Loosley

Islamic Reform and Arab Nationalism

Expanding the Crescent from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean (1880s–1930s)

Amal N. Ghazal

Islamic Ethics

Divine command theory in Arabo-Islamic thought

Mariam al-Attar

Muslim Fortresses in the Levant

Between Crusaders and Mongols

Kate Raphael

Muslim Fortresses in the Levant


Between Crusaders and Mongols



Kate Raphael





First published 2011
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
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Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2010.


To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to

© 2011 Kate Raphael

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted
or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying and recording, or in any information
storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from
the publishers.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Raphael, Kate.
Muslim fortresses in the Levant : between crusaders and Mongols / Kate Raphael.
p. cm. – (Culture and civilization in the Middle East ; 23)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Fortification–Egypt–History–To 1500. 2. Military architecture–Egypt–History–To 1500. 3. Siege
warfare–Egypt–History–To 1500. 4. Egypt–History, Military–To 1500. 5. Architecture, Ayyubid–Egypt.
6. Architecture, Mameluke–Egypt. I. Title.
UG435.E3R36 2011

ISBN 0-203-84516-1 Master e-book ISBN


ISBN: 978-0-415-56925-5 (hbk)

ISBN: 978-0-203-84516-5 (ebk)

Copyright © 2010 All rights reserved.

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BOOK: Muslim Fortresses in the Levant: Between Crusaders and Mongols
9.93Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub

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